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Resistance to dorsoventral loading, and this really is corroborated by our bending analysis. Dorsoventral expansion of a cervical vertebra is definitely an effective indicates to raise vertical bending strength without incurring more mass (Frey Martill, 1996), and we may predict this to become an evolutionary response to an increase in the weight from the neck and head in huge azhdarchid pterosa
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Resistance to dorsoventral loading, and this really is corroborated by our bending analysis. Dorsoventral expansion of a cervical vertebra is definitely an effective indicates to raise vertical bending strength without incurring more mass (Frey Martill, 1996), and we may predict this to become an evolutionary response to an increase in the weight from the neck and head in huge azhdarchid pterosa
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Perience and knowledge. In everyday practice these modified Resnick criteria might be readily deployed in CT assessments with the thoracic spine. Additional investigation validating this approach and correlating it to DISH-related outcomes is warranted.Regardless of the adoption of widespread screening efforts, a considerable fraction with the 136,830 sufferers diagnosed with colon or rectal cance
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Erior (H) aspect (note particularly massive neural spine); (I) A. lancicollis cervical VII (ZIN PH 138/44), dorsal aspect; (J) Phosphatodraco cervical VII (OCP DEK/GE 111), left lateral aspect; (K) A. lancicollis cervical VIII (ZIN PH 137/44), dorsal aspect. Abbreviations as for Fig. two, also with con; condyle; ex, exapophysis; ns, neural spine. (A, D, G ) and (K) right after Averianov (2010); (F
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Erior (H) aspect (note particularly massive neural spine); (I) A. lancicollis cervical VII (ZIN PH 138/44), dorsal aspect; (J) Phosphatodraco cervical VII (OCP DEK/GE 111), left lateral aspect; (K) A. lancicollis cervical VIII (ZIN PH 137/44), dorsal aspect. Abbreviations as for Fig. two, also with con; condyle; ex, exapophysis; ns, neural spine. (A, D, G ) and (K) right after Averianov (2010); (F
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Ta. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is usually a disorder involving ossification of ligaments and bone proliferation at entheses. Characteristically (and by definition), it affects the thoracic spine [1]. DISH is a condition of your elderly and is rarely noticed just before middle age. It really is more popular in guys than in girls; ratios between men/women differ among two:1 and
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), and we propose that the enlarged pectoral skeleton of azhdarchids could indicate comparable enhancement on the posterior neck musculature. Comparison with all the anatomy of contemporary reptiles suggest that both m. levator scapulae and m. serratus, at the same time as muscles operating inside the cervical series, anchored to the lateral faces in the neural arch and zygapophyses in azhdarchids
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Nes (Fastnacht, 2005), a partial vertebra from an additional European azhdarchid (Buffetaut et al., 1997) along with the Hatzegopteryx variety material (Buffetaut, Grigorescu Csiki, 2002; Buffetaut, Grigorescu Csiki, 2003). Buckling resistance, too as improved performance against compressive loading, has been posited as an explanation for this phenomenon (Fastnacht, 2005). Numerous other struc